Blood plasma: "Living water
Blood plasma is a liquid intercellular substance (pH 7.34-7.36) in which blood cells are suspended. Its percentage in the blood is 52-61%.
According to the existing hypothesis, the composition of blood plasma resembles that of the water of the prehistoric seas where life originated. About 93% of plasma consists of water, the rest of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, hormones, vitamins, etc. The most important proteins are albumin, globulin and fibrinogen. Their physiological role is really diverse: they maintain colloidal-osmotic (oncotic) pressure, constant blood volume and pH, are actively involved in blood coagulation, determine blood viscosity, play an important role in immune processes and serve as amino acid reserve.
Transfusion of plasma containing heparin in combination with antibiotics effectively reduces the risk of death in sepsis (provided the patient has no severe concomitant diseases)
From a pharmacological point of view, the transport function of blood plasma proteins is of particular importance: they combine with a number of substances (cholesterol, bilirubin, etc.) as well as with drugs (penicillin, salicylates, etc.) and transport them to the tissues.
During World War II, extensive research was conducted on the use of plasma in the treatment of the wounded and sick. Plasma and serum have proven to be a good substitute medium that not only restores circulating blood volume (CBC) but also maintains its level.
Until recently, human death due to blood loss was attributed exclusively to decreased oxygen supply to tissue organs (hypoxia). Therapy for blood loss consisted of stopping the bleeding and transfusing donor blood or red blood cell mass "drop by drop." In contrast, transfusion often resulted in recurrence of bleeding.
British scientists believe that regular analysis of tumor DNA circulating in the blood provides a new paradigm for studying cancer evolution. By deciphering its sequence, it is possible to understand exactly how a tumor develops drug resistance and consequently counteract it more effectively
Research in recent years has shown that donated red blood cells are only intended to compensate for insufficient oxygen supply to the tissue. Acute massive blood loss leads not only to a reduced oxygen supply, but also to profound disturbances of the coagulation system.
To restore circulation and break the vicious cycle of death, increase pressure and oxygenate tissues, the blood must be made more fluid and replenished with clotting factors. This can be achieved by transfusing large amounts of plasma (1-2 liters).
Blood plasma: today and tomorrow
Plasma eliminates protein deficiency and increases oncotic blood pressure, which contributes to increased diuresis and edema elimination; serves as an excellent adjunct to the complex therapy of infectious-toxic shock, hepatic coma, hemorrhagic syndromes, etc.
Products from the processing of donor blood plasma - modern high-tech therapeutics, the timely use of which saves the lives and health of many people.
Donor blood plasma is a complex mixture of proteins (about 500), many of which have therapeutic properties. However, the shelf life of blood products is limited, and their production takes a long time. The demand for these preparations is very high.
At present, it is possible to obtain and use individual plasma proteins with specific effects, such as albumin, fibrinogen, fibrinolysin (plasmin), and so on. Methods for plasma elimination (inactivation) of hepatitis viruses, HIV, etc. are being actively developed. Scientists are working on artificial synthesis of blood plasma proteins using genetic engineering methods, which may eliminate the need for donors.