What is rosacea?
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness of the skin (erythema), marked vasodilation, rashes caused by small papules and pimples, and in advanced cases, rhinophyma (enlarged nose).
The problem areas are often in the central area, but can also affect the entire face. This disease can cause cosmetic damage to the skin and cause discomfort to the patient. Rosacea mainly affects people between the ages of 30 and 50. This disease is most common in people of Northern European or Irish descent, but can also occur in people with darker skin.
Causes of rosacea?
The exact cause of this condition is not yet clear, but genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic predisposition to rosacea has usually been identified.
Other factors are vascular, including insufficient muscle control of facial blood vessels, insufficient venous blood flow in the face, or excessive blood vessels in the dermis (increased angiogenesis).
Some experts believe that the skin is exposed to many specific mites, such as Demodex folliculorum, a microscopic parasite that lives in the skin and hair follicles and contributes to the specific inflammation of Bacillus oleronius in the digestive system of Demodex . Folliculorum is directly involved in the pathogenesis of rosacea.
Another theory suggests that facial bacteria are the causative factor, as higher levels of antimicrobial peptides are found in the skin of patients, which triggers a chronic inflammatory immune response in the body.
Triggering and aggravating factors
Doctors have found that spicy food, alcohol or hot drinks in particular can cause rashes on the face and make the condition worse.
Other causes of rosacea appearances include sunlight, inadequate sunscreen, stress, high or low temperatures, wind, exercise, cosmetics, and hot baths.
Diet has no particular effect, but certain medications (such as amiodarone, corticosteroids applied to the skin or inhaled through the nose, high doses of vitamins B6 and B12) can worsen rosacea.
Depending on the localization or predominant manifestations, there are the following forms of rosacea:
- Erythematous telangiectasia Rosacea is characterized by redness on the face (erythema) and dilatation of small blood vessels visible under the skin (telangiectasia).
- Papulo-pustular rosacea: mainly manifested as papules and pustules (acne) on the face; phimosis in rosacea is manifested by collagen deposition in the tissues, enlarged nose (nasal hyperplasia) and thickened cheeks.
- Depending on the site of inflammation, there is rosacea on the face and scalp and rosacea on the eyes.
Rosacea can cause inflammation of the face, scalp and eyes.
Rosacea affects only the face, it progresses and develops in four stages:
- Pre-rosacea (stage 1): In this stage, the cheeks and nasal mucosa initially discolor longer than usual and the patient may experience a burning sensation.
- The vascular stage (stage 2) is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin, enlarged capillaries and translucency (telangiectasias) through the skin.
- The inflammatory stage (stage 3) manifests as eruption of small pustules (papules), sometimes with exudates (pus), especially in the central part of the face.
- The late stage (stage 4), reached by some people, is characterized by the proliferation (thickening) of the cheek and nasal cavity tissues due to tissue inflammation, collagen deposition and sebaceous gland hyperplasia; the nose becomes hypertrophic, that is, the volume increases, the skin becomes thicker and reddened, and the appearance changes prominently (nymphal sex and rhinorrhea).
Ocular rosacea affects the eyes and is usually associated with rosacea of the face. Symptoms of ocular rosacea include inflammation of the eyes, eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, iris, or a combination of both, resulting in redness and swelling of the eyes. Itchy or gray eyes and blurred vision.
Diagnosis of rosacea
Diagnosis is based on clinical dermatological examination and specific manifestations of the disease. The age of onset and the absence of acne help to distinguish rosacea from acne. There is no specific test for rosacea.
In rare cases, a skin biopsy may be performed to differentiate it from other diseases such as acne vulgaris, sarcoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, photodermatitis, skin granuloma, perioral dermatitis, and postmedication rash.
Can PRP treatment help with rosacea?
Rosacea can have a very negative psychological impact on sufferers, partly because there is no "definitive" cure for rosacea.
However, the good news is that there are treatments that can help suppress the symptoms and relieve the irritation.
PRP therapy is one such treatment. It can increase the natural production of collagen in our bodies, and delivers PRP growth factors directly to the problem area.
For people with rosacea, this is most likely to be the facial skin. It can help control and relieve the symptoms of rosacea. Studies have shown that the skin condition of patients with rosacea improved significantly after one to two PRP treatments. These improvements can last for 6 to 18 months, after which further treatment is needed to initiate healing.
Study of efficacy and safety in PRP treatment of rosacea.
Rosacea is a recurrent chronic inflammatory skin condition that is common in adults. Rosacea is difficult to treat and has a high recurrence rate.
This study investigated the role of PRP injection in the treatment of rosacea. It was conducted on 40 patients with rosacea. They received PRP injections with platelet-rich plasma injection on the right side of the face (group A) and platelet-poor plasma injection on the left side (group B).
One session was held every 2 weeks for 3 months (6 sessions). The Rosacea Score Scale was used to clinically evaluate patients before and after treatment. A skin biopsy was performed to assess the clinical outcome.
After PRP injection treatment, there was a statistically significant decrease in the Rosacea Score Scale. The improvement of group A was significantly better than that of group B. After PRP treatment, inflammatory cells were significantly reduced in hematoxylin and eosin staining, and nuclear factor κ-βeta expression decreased. Other systemic methods, especially when contraindicated.
PRP is an effective and safe treatment for rosacea. It is an alternative to other systemic treatments, especially when contraindications are present.